April 21, 2016

Analytical methods for porosity and particle science

The survey below is a compilation of our routine-based analyses for particle size and porosity characterization. Our capabilities however reach beyond this list.
We can use a variety of customized analytical conditions or even complementary techniques.
Please contact us for the possibilities.

Porosity

N2 Physical Gas Adsorption at 77 K (Volumetric Technique)
Single point BET (0.30 p/p0)
Multi-point BET (0.05-0.10-0.15-0.20-0.25 p/p0)
Multi-point BET pore volume (0.99 p/p0)
Adsorption isotherm (0.05-0.99 p/p0), multi-point BET, total pore volume, BJH adsorption pore size distribution (2-200 nm)
Adsorption and desorption isotherm (0.05-0.99 p/p0), multi-point BET, total pore volume, BJH pore size distribution (2-200 nm)

Ar Low Pressure Physical Gas Adsorption at 87 K (Volumetric Technique)
Adsorption isotherm (10-6 - 0.3 p/p0), SF micropore size distribution 0.5 - 2 nm

CO2 Physical Gas Adsorption at 273 K (Volumetric Technique)
Adsorption and desorption isotherm (5.10-4 - 3.10-2 p/p0), micropore surface area and micropore volume (Dubinin-Radushkevic)

Kr Physical Gas Adsorption at 77K (Volumetric Technique)
Multi-point BET (0.05-0.10-0.15-0.20-0.25 p/p0)

Hydrocarbon Gases (standard) Gas Adsorption (Volumetric Technique)
Adsorption isotherm 1-100 kPa

Hydrocarbon Vapours Gas Adsorption (Volumetric Technique)
Adsorption isotherm 1-100 kPa

H2 or CO Chemical Gas Adsorption (Volumetric Technique)
Dual adsorption isotherm (1-100 kPa), metal surface area, metal
dispersion and average crystallite size

Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry
Intrusion curve 0.1 - 400 MPa, porosity, apparent density, pore size distribution 4 nm - 17 µm
Intrusion curve low pressure - 0.4 MPa, porosity, apparent density, pore size distribution 4 µm - 120 µm
Intrusion curve vacuum - 0.4 MPa, porosity, apparent density, macropore size distribution 4 µm - 800 µm
Intrusion curve low pressure - 400 MPa, porosity, apparent density, pore size distribution 4 nm - 120 µm
Intrusion curve vacuum - 400 MPa, porosity, apparent density, pore size distribution 4 nm - 800 µm

He Pycnometry
Skeletal density

Sizing

Laserdiffraction (dry, aqueous or organic liquid dispersion)
Forward light scattering, size distribution 0.5 µm - 2000 µm
Forward light scattering incl. backscattering information, size distribution 0.04 µm - 2000 µm
Sprays and aerosols

Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS)
Particle size distribution 3 nm - 3 µm

Image Analysis
Shape information incl. photographs

Time of Transition
Particle size distribution 0.5 µm - 3600 µm

Phase Doppler Velocimetry
Spray droplet velocity and size distribution 0.5 µm - 90 µm

Electron Microscopy
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) high resolution
Scanning electron microscopy low resolution (max 5000x)
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
SEM with Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS)

Gravitational Sedimentation
Sedigraph size distribution 1 µm - 300 µm

Electrical Sensing Zone
Coulter Counter narrow size distribution 0.6 µm - 1200 µm

Sieve Analysis
Dry sieving, range 37 µm - 1700 µm

Composition

Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)
Each package one selected element quantitative, other elements semi-quantitative

Package A: F, Se

Package B: Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Dy, Er, Ga, K, I, In, Mg, Mn, Na, Rh, Si, Ti, V

Package C: As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Fe, Ga, K, La, Mo, Na, Pd, Pt, Re, Sb, Sc, Sm, U, W, Yb, Zn

Package D: Ag, Ba, Ca, Ce, Cr, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, Ir, Lu, Nd, Ni, Os, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, Yb, Zn, Zr

Package E: As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Sn, Zn